The project can be cloned from github repository.
The revision described in this post is c951b7b596889ba71070a33f4582a05beddab502.

OOP and statics

What is the the greatest advantage of object oriented programming? In my opinion it is polymorphism. How do you achieve polymorphism? By using inheritance. Can you use inheritance with statics? No, of course not.

In my opinion statics violate the object oriented concepts, and should not be included in truly object oriented languages. Instead of using statics objects you are way better just by using singletons.

So why would Java call itself object oriented when there are statics? My theory is that for some historical reason they wanted C++ guys to adapt to Java quicker and “lure” as many as possible into java world.

Switching to purely non-static world

Until last post (about object creation) all Enkel classes were purely static. They consisted of main method and other static methods. The reason behind this was to first implement all basic language features like variables,conditional statements,loops, method calls, and then move to OO. The time has come to start implementing OO.

What about main method?

All Java programs need to have static main method defined. The way Enkel handles this is as follows:

  • The compiler under the hood generates static main method.
  • Inside main method it creates an object using default constructor.
  • It calls start method on the fresh new created object.
  • A programmer provide start method.
private Function getGeneratedMainMethod() {
     FunctionParameter args = new FunctionParameter("args", BultInType.STRING_ARR, Optional.empty());
     FunctionSignature functionSignature = new FunctionSignature("main", Collections.singletonList(args), BultInType.VOID);
     ConstructorCall constructorCall = new ConstructorCall(scope.getClassName());
     FunctionSignature startFunSignature = new FunctionSignature("start", Collections.emptyList(), BultInType.VOID);
     FunctionCall startFunctionCall = new FunctionCall(startFunSignature, Collections.emptyList(), scope.getClassType());
     Block block = new Block(new Scope(scope), Arrays.asList(constructorCall,startFunctionCall));
     return new Function(functionSignature, block);

The start method is basically non-static version of main method.


In Creating JVM language [PART 7] - Methods I used INVOKESTATIC for invoking methods. It’s time to change it to INVOKEVIRTUAL.

There is one important difference between both of them - INVOKEVIRTUAL requires owner. INVOKESTATIC pops arguments off the stack. INVOKEVIRTUAL pops owner off the stack and then it pops arguemnts. It’s mandatory to generate owner expression.

If there is no owner provided by a programmer the implicit “this” var reference is provided:

//Mapping antlr generated FunctionCallContext to FunctionCall 
public Expression visitFunctionCall(@NotNull EnkelParser.FunctionCallContext ctx) {
    //other stuff
    boolean ownerIsExplicit = ctx.owner != null;
    if(ownerIsExplicit) {
        Expression owner = ctx.owner.accept(this);
        return new FunctionCall(signature, arguments, owner);
    ClassType thisType = new ClassType(scope.getClassName());
    return new FunctionCall(signature, arguments, new VarReference("this",thisType)); //pass "this" as a owner 
//Generating bytecode using mapped FunctionCall object
public void generate(FunctionCall functionCall) {
    functionCall.getOwner().accept(this); //generate owner (pushses it onto stack)
    generateArguments(functionCall);  //generate arguments
    String functionName = functionCall.getIdentifier();
    String methodDescriptor = DescriptorFactory.getMethodDescriptor(functionCall.getSignature());
    String ownerDescriptor = functionCall.getOwnerType().getInternalName();
    //Consumes owner and arguments off the stack
    methodVisitor.visitMethodInsn(Opcodes.INVOKEVIRTUAL, ownerDescriptor, functionName, methodDescriptor, false); 


Following Enkel Class:

HelloStart {

    start {
        print "Hey I am non-static 'start' method"

get’s compiled into:

kuba@kuba-laptop:~/repos/Enkel-JVM-language$ javap -c HelloStart.class 
public class HelloStart {
  public void start();
       0: getstatic     #12                 // Field java/lang/System.out:Ljava/io/PrintStream;
       3: ldc           #14                 // String Hey I am non-static  'start' method
       5: invokevirtual #19                 // Method "Ljava/io/PrintStream;".println:(Ljava/lang/String;)V
       8: return

  public HelloStart();
       0: aload_0   //get "this"
       1: invokespecial #22                 // Method java/lang/Object."<init>":()V - call super
       4: return

  public static void main(java.lang.String[]);
       0: new           #2                  // class HelloStart - create new object
       3: dup       //duplicate new object so that invokespecial does not consumes it
       4: invokespecial #25                 // Method "<init>":()V - call constructor
       7: invokevirtual #27                 // Method start:()V
      10: return

where Java’s equivalent would be:

public class HelloStart {
    public HelloStart() {

    public static void main(String[] var0) {
        (new HelloStart()).start();
    public void start() {
        System.out.println("Hey I am non-static \'start\' method");


Jakub Dziworski

JVM Dev Blog